The basic parts used to manufacture or assemble an electronic whole machine are called electronic components, and the components are independent individuals in the electronic circuit.
Is there a difference between electronic components and devices?
It is true that some people distinguish electronic components into components and devices from different angles.
Someone distinguishes from the manufacturing point of view
Component: An electronic product that does not change the molecular structure of a material at the time of manufacture is called a component.
Device: A product that changes the molecular structure of a material during fabrication is called a device.
However, the manufacture of modern electronic components involves many physical and chemical processes. Many electronic functional materials are inorganic non-metallic materials, and the manufacturing process is always accompanied by changes in crystal structure.
Obviously, this distinction is unscientific.
Someone distinguishes from the perspective of structural units
Components: A product with a single structural model and a single performance characteristic is called a component.
Device: A product that consists of two or more components combined to form a different performance characteristic from a single component.
According to this distinction, resistors, capacitors, etc. belong to components, but the names of resistors and capacitors are confused with the concept of "devices", and with the emergence of arrays of RC components such as exclusion and discharge, this distinction has become reasonable.
Someone distinguishes from the response of the circuit
The individual part through which the current can produce a change in frequency amplitude or change the direction of flow is called a device, otherwise it is called a component.
Such as triodes, thyristors and integrated circuits are devices, while resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. are components.
This distinction is similar to the classification of active and passive components that are common internationally.
In fact, it is difficult to clearly distinguish between components and devices, so collectively referred to as components, referred to as components just fine!
What is a discrete component?
Discrete components are relative to integrated circuits (ICs).
In the development of the electronics industry, due to the emergence of semiconductor integrated circuits, electronic circuits have two major branches: integrated circuits and discrete component circuits.
Integrated Circuit (IC Integrated Circuit)
It is a kind of electronic, circuit-functioning electronic device that interconnects components, such as transistors, RC, and wiring, which are required in a type of circuit, on a small or a small number of semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates. Components.
It refers to a single electronic component such as a common resistor, capacitor, transistor, etc., collectively referred to as a discrete component. Discrete components are single-function, "minimum" components, and there are no other component functional units inside.
The distinction between active and passive components
There is such a classification method for electronic components in the world.
Active component: Active
Refers to an active function that can amplify, oscillate, control current or energy distribution, or even perform data operations and processing on an electrical signal when energy supply is obtained.
Active components include a wide variety of transistors, integrated circuits (ICs), image tubes, and displays.
Passive component: Passive
Relative to the active component, it means that the electrical signal cannot be amplified, oscillated, etc., and the response to the electrical signal is passively compliant, and the electrical signal passes through the electronic component according to the original basic characteristics.
The most common resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. are passive components.
Active components and passive components
Corresponding to the distinction between active and passive components in the world, China is often called active devices and passive components.
Active components correspond to active components.
When operating such electronic components as transistors, thyristors, and integrated circuits, in addition to the input signal, there must be an excitation power supply to operate normally, so it is called an active device.
The active device itself also consumes power, and high-power active devices are usually equipped with a heat sink.
Corresponding to passive components are passive components.
Resistor, Capacitor and Inductance components have a signal through the circuit to perform the specified function. No external excitation power is required, so it is called a passive device.
Passive devices themselves consume little energy or convert electrical energy into other forms of other energy.
Circuit component and connection component
Passive devices in electronic systems can be classified into circuit-based devices and connected devices in accordance with the circuit functions they perform.
Connecting cable line
Circuit board PCB
Buzzer, speaker speaker
Electronic component classification diagram
Electronic component quality certification
US UL and CUL certification
German VDE and TUV certification
EU CE certification
China has CQC certification.
Electronic components development trend
Three major technology platforms for electronic components
Thick film technology
Thick film technology: In the insulating substrate through screen printing and low-temperature sintering process, the functional film layer of conductive, dielectric and electrical resistance is made. The functional film layer is thicker and the thickness is generally more than 10μm.
The thickest film resistors used in electronic components are typical products produced by thick film technology.
Thin film technology
Thin film technology originated from semiconductor integration. It mainly uses evaporative sputtering and etching processes to form films on insulating substrates to fabricate functional film layers such as conductive, dielectric and electrical resistance. The functional film layer is thin and the thickness is generally less than 1μm. It can also be as thin as 10 nm.
Electronic components fabricated on a glass or ceramic substrate using a thin film process are referred to as thin film components such as thin film circuits, thin film resistors, thin film single layer capacitors, and the like.
The characteristics of the thin film component are that the resistance and capacitance numerical control are more precise, the numerical range is wide, the temperature and frequency characteristics are good, and the operation can be performed to the millimeter wave band. And the integration is higher and the size is smaller.
Thin film technology has strong manufacturing flexibility and is suitable for custom-made product manufacturing or small-volume multi-product manufacturing with a short manufacturing cycle. However, the equipment used in the thin film process is relatively expensive and the production cost is high.
Thin film components are generally used in:
High-frequency electronic circuits such as optical communication, microwave communication, and wireless communication.
Or high performance requirements for electronic components such as sensing, medical and biotechnology.
Multi-layer chip technology
The screen printing process is mainly used to alternately overprint the conductive paste and the high temperature co-firing process on the medium film to produce the component chip main body. The number of alternating overprint layers can reach 1000 layers, and the thickness of the dielectric film layer and the conductive layer can range from 1 μm to several hundred. Mm, the thickness of the conductive metal layer ranges from 0.1 to 5 um.
Multi-layer chip component structure
Using a multi-layer chip technology, a variety of electronic components can be fabricated using different functional materials, such as:
Multilayer Chip Ceramic Capacitor MLCC
Multilayer Chip Ceramic Inductors MLCI
Multilayer Chip Varistor MLCV
There are also chip thermistors, etc.... all made by multi-layer chip technology.
The biggest advantage of multi-layer chip technology is that it is easy to design and standard, easy to manufacture on a large scale and high in automation, and can achieve very low production costs.